Cider is the second largest fruit wine in the world and is produced in apple producing regions all over the world. The United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Ireland, Switzerland, Denmark, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North America, China, etc. all produce apples. Britain is the world's largest producer of cider, followed by France and Germany.
Cider is defined as an alcoholic beverage obtained by fermenting apple juice. The vast majority of products sold on the market are clear and transparent ciders containing CO2, bottled or canned, sweet or dry, with an alcohol content of 1.2-8.5%. Some ciders have added fruit juice, wort or coloring. In addition, cider is also sold chilled in bars in the form of barreled. Some small ciders also produce high-quality still ciders or sparkling ciders with CO2, which are full-bodied and complex. These ciders are made from known cider-making apple varieties in defined proportions, which become the cider's selling point.
1. Types of cider:
1. Still cider: fermented with apple juice, without CO2. Including dry cider, sweet cider (sweetened after fermentation), natural sweet cider (stopped fermentation), etc.
2. Sparkling cider: natural sparkling cider, including cider fermented to dryness with Champagne yeast, added sugar and filled with CO2. Champagne-type cider, the same production process as champagne (including bottle turning, freezing stopper, disgorging, etc.).
3. Barrel-packed cider: still cider, packed in oak barrels, with alcohol not exceeding 6%.
4. Farmhouse cider: Traditional still cider, also known as real cider, with an alcohol content of 5-12%.
5. French cider: considered the best cider in the world, fermented at low temperature (10~15°C). Fermented in barrels or in stainless steel tanks, filled in champagne bottles and sealed with corks.
6. There is also Scrumpy, which has no CO2, no yeast and additives and is not filtered; apple spirits, which can be distilled into brandy; and flavored ciders that add spices to cider.
2. Brewing method
1. Raw material selection:
Late-maturing apples should be selected because of their long growth cycle, excellent flavor, sugar content of 15%, titrated acid of 1-5g/L, storage-resistant, fully mature, healthy, and free from rot and pests.
Concentrated apple juice, the advantage of making wine from concentrated juice is not subject to seasonal restrictions and stable quality, but the disadvantage is that the characteristic aroma of apples is weak, and the typicality of wine is poor. It is suitable for adding flavoring agents or using it with other fruits.
2. The production of apple juice requires cleaning, sorting, crushing and squeezing. The washed apples are crushed into 3~5mm chunks with a crusher, and then enter the squeezer, which has two types: frame type or belt type;
3. Pump the squeezed juice into the clarification tank. If the pH of the apple juice is higher than 3.8, add malic acid or other organic acids to adjust the pH of the juice to below 3.8. Add 50~80mg/L of SO2, pectinase and amylase to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and decompose pectin and starch in the fruit juice. It is best to lower the temperature of the juice to 10~15°C to speed up the clarification of the juice and prevent the growth of microorganisms;
4. After clarification, the juice is separated into the blending tank, and white sugar, concentrated cider or starch syrup is added according to the juice components to meet the requirements of fermentation and final products;
5. Transfer the prepared apple juice into the fermenter, add cider yeast, ferment at 10-20°C under temperature control, seal the lid of the fermenter, and discharge the CO2 produced by fermentation through the water seal valve on the top of the tank. When the sugar reduction in the fermented liquid meets the requirements, the temperature of the fermented liquid is quickly lowered to below 15°C to precipitate the suspended yeast.
6. After the cider liquid is clarified, separate the clarified cider liquid from the precipitated yeast, pour it into another tank full of storage, and add SO2 to make the free SO2 in the wine reach 20~30mg/L, and mix well. Sprinkle a little edible alcohol on the liquid level of the cider to seal the seal to prevent O2 and bacteria in the air from contacting the cider liquid, or fill the tank with CO2 and N2 from the top of the tank to prevent O2 from contacting the cider liquid;
7. Diatomaceous earth, isinglass, silica gel, etc. can be used for the purification of cider. After the cider liquid is clarified, it is filtered, and the filtered cider enters the aging tank. The temperature should be lower than 15°C, and the time is generally 6 months or longer.
8. After aging, enter the frozen tank with stirring, keep at -5~-10°C for 48-72 hours, pass through a diatomaceous earth filter in a cold state, and then filter through a membrane, and then fill it after heating up to room temperature.